Originally there was a chapel situated on the site of the current church. In 1247, the chapel became the parish church and was named Onze Lieve Vrouwe ter Aa ("Our Lady at the Aa") - the Aa being the nearby river. Groningen had 2 centers at the time, one of them was around the chapel. Here lived the fishermen and the traders.
In the 15th century the chapel was changed into a brick church.